Sunday, February 14, 2016

A Family Chronicle

Buddenbrooks: The Decline of a FamilyBuddenbrooks: 
The Decline of a Family 
by Thomas Mann



“Often, the outward and visible material signs and symbols of happiness and success only show themselves when the process of decline has already set in. The outer manifestations take time - like the light of that star up there, which may in reality be already quenched, when it looks to us to be shining its brightest.”   ― Thomas Mann, Buddenbrooks: The Decline of a Family



Before there was The Magic Mountain and before Death in Venice Thomas Mann gained critical acclaim for Buddenbrooks. It is a long, beautifully written account of a declining bourgeois family, that some have suggested was inspired by his reading of Tolstoy among others. While the book has lighter moments it is overwhelmingly bleak. The Buddenbrooks' family success is behind them and there are few of the current and upcoming generations that are up to the task of maintaining the family much less improving it.
When we first meet the family one is immediately impressed by their conservatism and traditional ways. It is set in the 1830s in a northern German trading city and the fine mansion where they live and everything else about them exudes the feeling of haute bourgeoisie. The central characters are introduced, Johann and Elisabeth the father and mother with three children, Antonie (Tony), Thomas, and his younger brother Christian. It is their lives that form the center of the story for the first half of the novel.

With Thomas Mann every detail is important, so as time goes by (and it seems to fly by decade after decade) the background of the changes resulting from both the Industrial Revolution and the politics of the German states is as important as the family social struggles. And struggles they have as the Grandfather dies and the firm passes on to Johann who too few years later passes the firm on to his eldest son Thomas. If there is one central figure in the family saga it is Tony who first marries an older man rather than her young love as her father demands only to see that marriage end in divorce due to the bankruptcy of her husband who (wrongly) assumed the Buddenbrooks family would bail him out. I hope you are beginning to get a feeling for the theme of decline.  Buddenbrooks reminds me a bit of Booth Tarkington's The Magnificent Ambersons, a novel about another family who fails to change with the times and struggles to maintain their social standing. 

Mann's satirical side is brought home often and is best seen in a set piece when the workers challenge the leaders of the Town. The mini-revolt (it pales in comparison to the real revolution of 1848) is defused by Consul Johann while one of the town elders is parodied as he shows more concern for his carriage than anything the workers (who like children should be silent) might have to say.  One of the keenest issues for me is the position of women in the Buddenbrooks family and society in general. That is the lack of standing and choice that they have. This is evident not only in Tony's failed marriages (she has a second divorce before the midpoint in the novel) but also in other female members of the family, particularly Tony's younger sister Clara who is considered unmarriageable until a Minister, Sievert Tiburtius, takes an interest in her. Most women in this society are prepared for nothing in life with limited choices and the prospect of life as second class citizens.

Throughout the novel Mann develops themes through the use of leitmotifs. These stem from his admiration for the operas of Richard Wagner, in the case of Buddenbrooks an example can be found in the description of the color – blue and yellow, respectively – of the skin and the teeth of the characters. Each such description alludes to different states of health, personality and even the destiny of the characters.  Aspects of Thomas Mann's own personality are manifest in the two brothers, Thomas and Christian, who find it extremely difficult to live together. Christian is much the free spirit who cannot be happy working in the family firm, the leadership of which Thomas has inherited as the eldest son. It should not be considered a coincidence that Mann shared the same first name with one of them. The influence of Schopenhauer is also present and it is through the brothers that both Buddenbrooks reflect a conflict lived by the author: departure from a conventional bourgeois life to pursue an artistic one, although without rejecting bourgeois ethics. I plan to expand upon these thoughts with a further commentary on the remainder of the novel and the rise and fall of the next generation of Buddenbrooks. 


Thomas "worked hard, and success was his.  His standing in town grew, and, despite the capital lost through setting Christian up on his own and Tony's second marriage, the firm had several excellent years.  Nevertheless, there were a few things that could sap his courage for hours on end, dulling the sharpness of his mind and casting him into gloom." (p 354)



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3 comments:

Brian Joseph said...

Great commentary as always James.

I have not read anything by Mann, but I plan to begin hopefully sooner rather then later.

The conflicts and commentary involving aspects of the bourgeois lifestyle, morality. etc.were an endless source of material for great literature.

James said...

Brian,

Thanks for your comment. This is a good place to start with Mann, or you could consider his short stories to get a taste of what his prose is like. He writes stories filled with details all of which are important for his themes which often center on death, disease, mythology, free will and determinism, and the meaning of life.

cleopatra said...

I've read The Magic Mountain and that made me want to put off reading another Mann for awhile. However Buddenbrooks looks a little more accessible, thanks to your review. I'll have to decided whether I want to read The Magic Mountain again. Apparently, you only start to understand it after reading it twice. Curious, isn't it? :-)